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2013 (when they constitute about 15 on the population) than they had in
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J Adolesc Wellness.
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2013 (when they constitute about 15 of the population) than they had in 1999 (when every day smoking prevalence was about 30 ). While this consistency may have something to accomplish with what in an international context may be characterised as Norwegian affluence, additionally, it indicates that the developing "marginalisation of smokers" among the public (which is what we've studied here, and which we only find minor assistance for) can be a various sort of query than the overrepresentation of smokers in marginal trouble groups (which we've not studied right here). The hardening hypothesis has also been questioned, in addition to a recent study of [https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.242 title= brb3.242] 32 nations (US and EU) suggests that the remaining smoker population is in reality softening, not hardening [59].Limitations Response rateThe low response price from the present study raises concerns about the representativeness of the sample, andS ?and Kvaavik BMC Public Well being (2016) 16:Page 11 ofthe validity with the outcomes. In the event the relative size of lesser privileged groups increases more amongst smokers than non-smokers more than time, and these subjects don't respond to surveys to a greater extent, the non-response in distinct smoking groups may possibly alter differently over time and introduce a greater non-response bias in 2013 than in preceding years, such a bias should be considered when interpreting the findings. Nonetheless, the trends discovered in everyday smoking in this study resemble these discovered in other research with larger response prices, so the analytical sample within the existing study would seem to be reasonably unbiased. Also, comparisons with the sample applied right here with other information sets with regard to other indicators than smoking status (for example housing and BMI), suggest that the sample is largely representative when it comes to public wellness indicators [30, 47, 48]. Even though the sample, like any household survey, is likely to underestimate the size in the most marginalised smokers (homeless people, drug addicts, folks in prisons), it's less probably that this underestimation threatens the validity on the study.Weighted datausing un-weighted data (around two percentage points for all years combined), otherwise the outcomes have been similar employing the two different methods. The similarities of the outcomes from weighted and un-weighted data within the current study indicate that our findings are valid.Self-reportingAll factors utilized within the current analyses have been obtained by self-reporting, which is vulnerable to recall bias and social desirability [63?5]. Desirable positions and healthpromoting behaviour may possibly be overestimated though unwanted positions/situations and unhealthy behaviours might be underestimated. The prospective for more than and underestimation may well differ inside the unique smoking groups, and one particular have to bear in mind the possibility of incorrect estimates of associations.Weighting information to increase the representativeness in the study sample could lead to some challenges. Inside the present study, weighting was based on gender, age and geographic region from the basic Norwegian population 15 years of age and older. The independent and dependent variables [http://campuscrimes.tv/members/arrow15adult/activity/704817/ http://campuscrimes.tv/members/arrow15adult/activity/704817/] utilised in our analyses weren't used within the weighting, as appropriate levels of material complications and lifestyle variables inside the population are.
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3-year longitudinal study ranging from adolescence into adulthood. J Adolesc Overall health. 2004;35:238?four. doi:ten.1016/j.jadohealth.2003.12.004. 63. Fisher MA, Taylor GW, Shelton BJ, Debanne SM. Sociodemographic qualities and diabetes predict invalid self-reported non-smoking in a population-based study [https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-011-2677-0 title= s00221-011-2677-0] of U.S. adults. BMC Public Well being. 2007;7:33. doi:ten. 1186/1471-2458-7-33. 64. King MF, Bruner GC. Social desirability bias: A neglected aspect of validity testing. Psychol Mark. 2000;17:79?03. 65. van De Mortel TF. Faking it: social desirability response bias in self-report research. Aust J Adv Nurs. 2008;25:40?.Submit your next manuscript to BioMed Central and we are going to assist you to at every single step:?We accept pre-submission inquiries ?Our selector tool helps you to discover the most relevant journal ?We give round the clock buyer help ?Convenient on the net submission ?Thorough peer review ?Inclusion in PubMed and all important indexing services ?Maximum visibility for your research Submit your manuscript at www.biomedcentral.com/submitAbbey et al. BMC Public Well being (2016) 16:848 DOI ten.1186/s12889-016-3513-zRESEARCH ARTICLEOpen AccessCommunity perceptions and practices of remedy seeking for childhood pneumonia: a mixed methods study in a rural district, GhanaMercy Abbey1*, Margaret A. Chinbuah1, Margaret [http://christiansdatingnetwork.ga/members/court26circle/activity/150874/ http://christiansdatingnetwork.ga/members/court26circle/activity/150874/] Gyapong2, L. Kay Bartholomew3 and Bart van den BorneAbstractBackground: The Planet Wellness Organization recommends community case management of malaria and pneumonia for reduction of under-five mortality in developing [https://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01865 title= fpsyg.2015.01865] nations. Caregivers' perception and understanding of your illness influences the care a sick kid receives. Research in Ghana and elsewhere have routinely shown adequate recognition of malaria by caregivers. Similarly, proof from Asia and a few African nations have shown sufficient know-how on pneumonia. Even so, in Ghana, tiny has been documented about neighborhood awareness, knowledge, perceptions and management of childhood pneumonia specifically inside the Dangme West district. Therefore this formative study was carried out to identify neighborhood perceptions of pneumonia for the purpose of informing the design and style and implementation of context particular well being communication tactics to market early and appropriate care in search of behaviour for childhood pneumonia. Procedures: A mixed method approach was adopted. Information have been obtained from structured interviews (N = 501) and eight concentrate group discussions produced up of 56 caregivers of under-fives and eight community Important Informants. Descriptive and inference statistics had been used for the quantitative data and grounded theory to guide the analysis on the qualitative information. Results: Two-thirds of your respondents had under no circumstances heard the name pneumonia. Most respondents didn't know about the signs and symptoms of pneumonia. For the couple of who have heard about pneumonia, causes had been largely attributed to coming into get in touch with with cold temperature in different types. Management practices largely have been self-treatment with residence remedies and allopathic care. Conclusion: The low awareness and inadequate recognition of pneumonia implies that impacted children might not receive prompt and proper treatment as their caregivers might misdiagnose the illness. Sufficient measures must be taken to make the needed awareness to improve care seeking behaviour. Keywords: Caregivers, Children beneath 5, Care in search of, Property management, Perceptions, Pneumonia, Ghana* Correspondence: mercy.abbey@ghsmail.org; mercy.abbey@yahoo.com.

Revision as of 19:18, 7 February 2018

J Adolesc Wellness. 3-year longitudinal study ranging from adolescence into adulthood. J Adolesc Overall health. 2004;35:238?four. doi:ten.1016/j.jadohealth.2003.12.004. 63. Fisher MA, Taylor GW, Shelton BJ, Debanne SM. Sociodemographic qualities and diabetes predict invalid self-reported non-smoking in a population-based study title= s00221-011-2677-0 of U.S. adults. BMC Public Well being. 2007;7:33. doi:ten. 1186/1471-2458-7-33. 64. King MF, Bruner GC. Social desirability bias: A neglected aspect of validity testing. Psychol Mark. 2000;17:79?03. 65. van De Mortel TF. Faking it: social desirability response bias in self-report research. Aust J Adv Nurs. 2008;25:40?.Submit your next manuscript to BioMed Central and we are going to assist you to at every single step:?We accept pre-submission inquiries ?Our selector tool helps you to discover the most relevant journal ?We give round the clock buyer help ?Convenient on the net submission ?Thorough peer review ?Inclusion in PubMed and all important indexing services ?Maximum visibility for your research Submit your manuscript at www.biomedcentral.com/submitAbbey et al. BMC Public Well being (2016) 16:848 DOI ten.1186/s12889-016-3513-zRESEARCH ARTICLEOpen AccessCommunity perceptions and practices of remedy seeking for childhood pneumonia: a mixed methods study in a rural district, GhanaMercy Abbey1*, Margaret A. Chinbuah1, Margaret http://christiansdatingnetwork.ga/members/court26circle/activity/150874/ Gyapong2, L. Kay Bartholomew3 and Bart van den BorneAbstractBackground: The Planet Wellness Organization recommends community case management of malaria and pneumonia for reduction of under-five mortality in developing title= fpsyg.2015.01865 nations. Caregivers' perception and understanding of your illness influences the care a sick kid receives. Research in Ghana and elsewhere have routinely shown adequate recognition of malaria by caregivers. Similarly, proof from Asia and a few African nations have shown sufficient know-how on pneumonia. Even so, in Ghana, tiny has been documented about neighborhood awareness, knowledge, perceptions and management of childhood pneumonia specifically inside the Dangme West district. Therefore this formative study was carried out to identify neighborhood perceptions of pneumonia for the purpose of informing the design and style and implementation of context particular well being communication tactics to market early and appropriate care in search of behaviour for childhood pneumonia. Procedures: A mixed method approach was adopted. Information have been obtained from structured interviews (N = 501) and eight concentrate group discussions produced up of 56 caregivers of under-fives and eight community Important Informants. Descriptive and inference statistics had been used for the quantitative data and grounded theory to guide the analysis on the qualitative information. Results: Two-thirds of your respondents had under no circumstances heard the name pneumonia. Most respondents didn't know about the signs and symptoms of pneumonia. For the couple of who have heard about pneumonia, causes had been largely attributed to coming into get in touch with with cold temperature in different types. Management practices largely have been self-treatment with residence remedies and allopathic care. Conclusion: The low awareness and inadequate recognition of pneumonia implies that impacted children might not receive prompt and proper treatment as their caregivers might misdiagnose the illness. Sufficient measures must be taken to make the needed awareness to improve care seeking behaviour. Keywords: Caregivers, Children beneath 5, Care in search of, Property management, Perceptions, Pneumonia, Ghana* Correspondence: mercy.abbey@ghsmail.org; mercy.abbey@yahoo.com.

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